Groundwater is a significant part of the water cycle. It comes from rain and hail that saturate into the ground. The water moves down into the earth due to gravity, moving between particles of soil, sand, gravel, or rock, until it reaches a level where the ground is filled up, or soaked, with water. The space that is filled with water is known as the saturation zone, and the surface of this zone is referred to as the water table. The water table could be very close to the ground’s surface, or it might be hundreds of meters below.
While groundwater is present everywhere underground, certain parts of the saturated zone consist of more water than others. An aquifer is an underground creation of permeable stone or loosened substance that can produce usable levels of water when tapped by a borehole. These aquifers can be small, or very big, underlying a large number of square kilometres of the earth’s surface.
Even when groundwater is not used by people, it may continue to play a vital role in the local environment and support rural living that way. Plants may take advantage of it with their roots and animals may drink it when it reaches the surface in the form of natural springs.
If groundwater is below the ground, how can we get it out?
Under natural circumstances, water in aquifers is brought to the surface by way of a spring or may be released into streams or wetlands. Water in aquifers is delivered to the surface naturally by way of a spring, discharged into lakes, streams or the ocean or by drilling a borehole. We can access groundwater through a borehole that is drilled into the aquifer.
As soon as a successful borehole has been drilled, we will equip it with any of the suitable equipment: (the selection is affected by the particular intended use of the water, e.g. for drinking water, water supply to the municipality or irrigation system):
- Handpump - specifically if the yield of a borehole is small, mostly in rural areas.
- Windpump - mainly on farms, can sustain higher yields
- Electrical pump/Diesel pump - typically when borehole yield is significant
- Play pump - beneficial when borehole yield is low, primarily for water supply at schools.
Boreholes call for advanced technology with the appropriate technical design, along with adequate knowledge about the aquifer. However, the value of high-quality borehole construction and design is frequently overlooked. The duration of a borehole and the performance depend entirely on the materials and the technology applied. Borehole “failure”